2022 Events & Exhibitions
Sara Nightingale Gallery
Artists Talk, June 30th, 2022
26 Main Street
Sag Harbor, NY 11963
September 29- October, 2022
November 4- January 8, 2023
524B Harrison Avenue
Boston, MA 02118
PREVIOUS EVENTS AND SHOWS
Mass Art Auction 2022
March 22- April 22, 2022
Massachusetts College of Art and Design
621 Huntington Avenue
Boston, MA 02115 USA
Glisten, Virtual Exhibition hosted by 26th Boston Turkish Arts and Culture Festival
Please join Mass. Bays ecologist Jill Carr and my self for our art and science talk about seagrass with my virtual “Glisten” exhibition hosted by Boston Turkish Arts and Culture festival.
December 4th at 2PM
The exhibition includes new abstract paintings that explore seagrass habitats. Glisten relates to how light is the main source of energy for all living organisms. I am inspired by how we are all connected through sun light and how seagrass, a submerged green plant, uses light to make food and oxygen. For over six years I have painted abstracted seagrass meadows, and volunteered on seagrass restoration projects on the East Coast. My friendships with marine scientists including Jill Carr have inspired my painting practice.
I am thrilled to be asked to included in this years Turkish Arts and Culture Festival. Boston Turkish Festival, which was founded in 1996, is a unique festival which lasts more than a month and it is one of the largest of its kind in the U.S. The festival theme since 2006, “Colors of Anatolia”, reflects the cultural diversity and richness, ranging from fine arts, dance, music, film to culinary arts. Once again, we are proud to present to you another high caliber festival.
For over a decade, Jill Carr has focused on on mapping and monitoring of seagrass habitats with state fisheries and coastal management agencies. As the Coastal Data Scientist at the Massachusetts Bays National Estuary Partnership, she builds partnerships with community-based groups interested in environmental monitoring, and helps build their capacity to collect high quality data.
Please join Jill Carr and my self for an artistic and scientific interpretation of current seagrass habitats in our virtual discussion. Jill Carr will share her knowledge on seagrass ecology and mapping techniques with a focus on the use of satellites, airplanes, drones and sonar to locate and monitor eelgrass. She will share imagery from under water and from the sky, bringing to light the beauty and challenges around this important marine habitat. I will discuss how mark making and color is infused by the direct connection with volunteering in the field with the scientists.
“Seagrass: The Untold Story” hosted by BioMed Realty
31 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02118
November 18, 6:00PM
Ticketed event sign up here
BioMed Realty is pleased to present Seagrass: The Untold Story, an evening of art, science, an examination of Boston’s ecological history, and the unveiling of “Sustaining Life,” the art installation by artist Nedret Andre on view and open to the public at 321 Harrison Ave, Boston at 6:00PM, November 18th, 2021. Nedret will be joined by marine biologist Phil Colarusso for an inspiring and informative presentation that sheds light on seagrass’s critical role in our coastal shorelines.
Marine Biologist Phil Colarusso will discuss the vital role seagrass plays in keeping our shorelines healthy and protected from storms surges. He will also highlight the historical boundaries of seagrass meadows as they have shape-shifted through the last hundred years. Phil received a Ph.D. from Northeastern University studying carbon metabolism of eelgrass and has worked at the US EPA for over 32 years as a marine biologist. As a US EPA certified Scientific Diver and Divemaster, he serves as the alternate Unit Dive Officer for the Region I dive team. Having spent over 600 hours underwater in seagrass meadows, his current research focuses on carbon sequestration by eelgrass and using high-resolution satellite imagery to estimate seagrass abundance. Phil was awarded a Gulf of Maine Visionary award in 2014 for his work in seagrass conservation.
The event will take place in the lobby of 321 Harrison Ave, Boston at 6:00PM, November 18th. Wine and hors d’oeuvre will follow the discussion along with music from Kendall Square Orchestra .
This is a free public event with tickets so please RSVP up here.
Seagrass, HarborPark Exhibit
John Joseph Moakley United States Courthouse
October 1 – December 15, 2021
Beacon Gallery, Boston Nov 2022
Protecting Our Seagrass Habitats
Public Arts Event, FPCA
Mass Art Auction
more at Mass Art
Inside Voices in partnership with the Fitchburg Art Museum
March 18- May 2nd, 2021
More info here
The City by the Sea
Solo Exhibition, November 4 – December 13, 2020
Opening Reception: November 6, 6- 8PM
Please sign up here for booking an appointment.
524B Harrison Avenue Boston, MA 02118
Seagrass, Lorenzetti and Boston
My love for Sienese paintings started when I was at London’s National Gallery in 2008. I went to a Sienese painting exhibition with small iconic paintings and frescos. I fell in love with the warm earth tones and rich simulated textures. I discovered Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s work and was fascinated with his ability to create transparent layers of fabric or marble imitation in paint. My new series of seagrass inspired abstractions pays homage to both Lorenzetti’s 14th-century work and to Boston’s changing topography.
I am concerned with our relationship to the natural and man-made environments. How it has changed over time and how it will continue to change in the future. Our actions now impact our future for clean air, clean water and keeping CO2 levels low. Seagrass ecosystems play a vital roll in human well being, from food (fish nursery) to protection against floods and erosion. In the past, my paintings have celebrated seagrass environments in an attempt to raise awareness of these issues. Now, rather than focusing on the rich biodiversity and ecosystem benefits seagrass provides us, I wanted to have a different type of conversation about seagrass within a historical context.
Lorenzetti’s painting “City by the Sea” is a 14th-century artist’s vision of an idealized urban city surrounded by land and water. It is a small, 9”x 12” fresco on wood. What intrigues me about this painting is that it is so quiet, almost desolate. There is one boat in the left corner, a smaller one on the right and a figure on the right. We are left wondering where all the people went. I also love how the architecture was organized in multiple views on the right with contrasting colors. In my “City by the Sea” interpretation, I expanded the notion of what would happen if this city was reorganized, or re-imagined. What if it was underwater and was also an eelgrass habitat?
I also discovered Lorenzetti’s “The Allegory of Good and Bad Government,” three fresco panels painted in Siena’s Plazzo Pubblico in the town council hall. During this period in 1339, nine council men (magistrates) would be elected from the townspeople to run Siena. These frescos were a reminder of what happens during good times and bad times to warn the magistrates how their decisions would impact Siena. It is a powerful reminder for all of us today. Our actions impact our future. I borrowed colors and elements from the “Allegory of Good Government” to create two paintings in this series; “Night Swim” and “Adaptation”. In “Night Swim” the dark plumb hues and rustic oranges surround two swimming creatures; we are looking down at the ecosystem with eelgrass blurred below. The water is calm. In good times, we continue to keep mammals and fish alive as well as their seagrass habitat.
In “Adaptation” a different type of city is re-imagined, with perspective skewed around a spiraling axis. A watery world surrounds the reconfigured architecture. It is a futuristic view of how we will need to adapt to living in mobile states that can float in water. With a good government, good city planning for the whole community will occur. Our ability to adapt will be based on our ability to respond to climate change and reconsider our relationship to our changing environment. In this utopia, seagrass grows in man-made environments where it continues to help balance CO2 levels. We live in hubs that can float.
In thinking about our City by the Sea, Boston, it’s fascinating to imagine that my studio in the South End in the 1600s was ocean front. That eelgrass beds flourished and cod swam freely. With Boston’s expansion, landfills pushed the edges of this seagrass habitat further out. More expansion and more development lead to brown-colored, polluted water in the 1980s. Eelgrass needs light to survive and with this sludge in the harbor most of the meadows disappeared. However, after the Boston harbor cleanup projectin the 1990s seagrass began to re-appear. Our actions can make a difference. In “Boston Seagrass” blades of transparent seagrass overlap a 1775 map of Boston. If you look carefully you can see South End highlighted on the map. This painting bridges community, history, and a love for our natural habitat that has sustained us throughout time. “Boston Seagrass” is also a reminder of the important role we each play in protecting our healthy seagrass habitats.
Edge of A Meadow
Edge of A Meadow
Solo Exhibition June 15 – October 28, 2020
346 Congress Street
Boston, MA 02210
Opening Reception: July 15, 2020
*** limited pre-booked visitors with masks only please sign up here!
My new series of abstract paintings in “The Edge of A Meadow” exhibition I explore the elusive concept of an ever-shifting boundaries underwater. I’m intrigued by how patterns found in eelgrass meadows can be interpreted as abstract motifs. Since 2015, I have volunteered in eelgrass restorations projects in Massachusetts. I am thankful for so many wonderful collaborations with scientists on projects. Dr. Phil Colaruso inspired the title for this show at an eelgrass meeting in Dec. 2019 to come up with a Haiku for “The Edge of A Meadow” at Boston’s EPA. I decided to use paint instead of words.
I created the “Edge of a Meadow” painting for me mimics the experience walking in shallow water in eelgrass beds. I tried to capture the swirling watery movement of the meadow creating transparent layers of paint and areas of opacity. Sometimes a school of fish swims by, other times spider crabs are sticking their claws out challenging the new comer. In most cases we see a lot of vegetation along with the blades of eelgrass. Different sorts of algae and epiphytes are nestled between the blades and sediment.
In “Mapping Seagrass”I created a large scale abstract map of Duxbury Bay. I wanted to recreate our experience of “Searching for Seagrass”. In August 2019 I volunteered on a “Citizen’s Scientist” project with Mass Bay NSRWA Watershead ecologist Sara Grady in Duxbury Bay. They had been documenting eelgrass in the area for several years and monitoring the water quality. We went to 18 different sites in two days and our job was to do document the seagrass. We only found one site with eelgrass. These eelgrass sites are disappearing at fast rates. In my painting I tried to capture the beautiful day and this movement of zipping to different locations looking for seagrass.
“Collecting Samples” depicts the rich biodiversity of a seagrass meadow underwater as I experienced it snorkeling to collect data samples in Virginia for a Long Term Study on Eelgrass. I reversed the colors so the blue-greens of the water became hot orange-pinks to feature seagrass as the prominent stars of the habitat. The physical sample collecting part was a balancing act for me; dealing with wave action, moon jelly fish and occasional stingrays that swam by made it a little hard to collect exactly the right amount of sediment.
“Underwater Terrain” traces of the contours of shifting land underwater. Lines weave through interlocking rock formations, while greens and yellows lay below the creamy surface of white oil paint. Texture and pattern repeat in different places almost becoming geometric and then dissolving into another organic iteration. Sand covers rock, an orange mollusk shell reveals itself partially hidden. I am interested in capturing these moments of structure and loss as a metaphor for what is happening in eelgrass habitats.
Seagrass provides us with many ecological services from storm protection, to feeding thousands of animals to helping minimize shore erosion to breathing clean air. Protecting and conserving the existing seagrass meadows become most important as our C02 levels reach a historic high of 413 parts per million (ppm). With my paintings I hope to give a deeper appreciation of the many roles seagrass plays in our oceans.
Marblehead Arts Association
New Members Show
The Hooper Mansion
8 Hooper Road
Marblehead, MA 1945
(Largely) Small Works at Alpers Fine Art
November 13 – December 28, 2019
Several of my seagrass inspired paintings have been selected to be a part of this group exhibition.
Saturday November 16, 2019, 4:00- 9:00PM
Alpers Fine Art
10 Postoffice Avenue
Andover, MA 01810
Delighted Harvest Moon was juried into being a part of the Blue2019 exhibition curated by deCordava Museum’s Sarah Montross!
Reception | November 7, 6-8pm at both gallery locations
Awards will be announced at 7pm at University Place Gallery
Artist Talk | November 16, 11am-2pm at Kathryn Schultz Gallery
Exhibition Dates | November 7 – December 18, 2019
University Place Gallery
124 Mount Auburn Street, Cambridge MA 02138
Monday-Friday, 9am-6pm, Saturday 9am-1pm
Rhythms in Nature at
Solo Show, September 4- October 15th, 2019
Sunday September 8th, 2019, 12:00AM- 2:00PM
Please join us at Stetson Gallery for Rhythms in Nature, a series of new abstract paintings that explore how patterns found in eelgrass meadows can be interpreted into abstract motifs. Volunteering with eelgrass conservation groups in Massachusetts has expanded my understanding of the importance of seagrass habitats. I am very excited to announce BU marine scientist, Dr. Alyssa Novak will share her eelgrass research and restoration efforts she conducts in the North Shore at the opening reception.
“I’m interested in depicting the sensations of light and color that I experience when I am out in seagrass meadows. There are multiple layers of movements all happening at the same time, just beautiful orchestrated synchronicity.”
In “Harvest Moon”for example, I paint the warm glowing reflection of an orange moon on the surface of the water. Muted grays mingle with specs of vibrant blues while a warm golden undertone hovers just beneath the surface. The space is infused by a mysterious orange glow. Small rhythmic charcoal marks weave throughout the painting and dabs of magenta pinks bounce off of the seagrass blades. Almost like an orchestra there are many micro movements culminating in the experience of the whole.
28 Mugford Street,
Marblehead, MA 01945
The Piano Craft Gallery presents Connecting Worlds: an exhibition which explores through color and abstract art forms ways in which we’re linked to each other and the world around us. Through the work of two Boston artists, using distinct methodologies, straight-line geometrical work and gestural strokes, both exude passion, mastery of their craft, beauty, and artistry. On display this month is a not to be missed emotionally alluring, color packed, and personally moving exhibit.
Nedret Andre & Todd Brugman
Two Person Show
Show Dates: September 13th, 2019 – September 30th, 2019
Gallery Hours: Friday 6-8PM & Saturday 12:00-5:00PM
Opening Reception: Friday September 13th, 2019 6-10PM
Piano Craft Gallery
793 Tremont Street
Boston, MA 02118
SoWa Artist Guild: Two View of Chroma
Exhibition at Endicott College, Walter J. Manninen Center for the Arts
June 24 – September 27, 2019
Reception: Wednesday, September 11, 2019 – 5 – 7 p.m.
376 Hale Street
Beverly, MA 01915
(978) 232-2655 phone
Join me at Copley Square Hotel’s Art Square Gallery this summer for my solo show, Ocean Life!
Ocean Life is a new series of my abstract paintings that explores seagrass habitats. Seagrass is a foundation plant that feeds, shelters and protects thousands of sea creatures. I was thrilled to be invited by Copley Square Hotel to be a part of their summer event series exhibiting my work at Art Square Gallery!
Along with Copley Square Hotel, I will be co-hosting three events as part of the summer event series at Art Square Gallery.
All events are RSVP only
May 8- Sep. 8, 2019
Art Square Gallery at Copley Square Hotel
47 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02116
Solo Show Feb.- May 20th 2019
Pine Manor College
400 Heath Street, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
The Emotion of Color, Contemporary Abstract Expressionism in the 21stCentury, Belmont Gallery of Art
The Group Exhibition will run Oct 19th- Nov 30th, 2018
Nedret Andre, Jeanne Arthur, Kristen Reynolds, & Sussie White
19 Moore St., 3rd floor
Belmont Center, MA 02478
UPROOTED at Beacon Gallery
The Solo exhibition will run October 5th- 28th, 2018
Opening Reception: Friday October 5th, 7-9PM, 2018
524B Harrison Avenue Boston, MA 02118
Seagrass, green crabs, invaders, ecosystems and lots of paint.
Please join us for a look at what happens when eelgrass habitats have unexpected guests that eat through everything. Learn how the green crabs themselves have been uprooted and what happens when this stranger arrives on our shores. This show combines video footage from seagrass field work, paintings inspired by this research and an intriguing discussion on seagrass habitats by local scientists.
To belong somewhere, to have roots, a sense of history or home, and then to be uprooted. What does it mean for European Green Crab (Canisus Maneas) larva to have been uprooted from their native shores and transported to our coastline on the ballasts of boats in the 1800s? These seemingly small creatures proliferated to become an invasive species in New England and are now destroying acres of indigenous seagrass habitats. They dig away at seagrass roots and uproot these foundation plants. I am exploring the implications of how being uprooted affects both the European Green Crab and Seagrass meadows in with my abstract paintings.
Super excited to have “Uprooted” co-curated by art critic Oliva Kiers and gallery director Christine O’Donnell!
Seagrass Discussion with Coastal Ecologists:
Saturday, October 13th, 12 PM
BU’s Dr. Alyssa Novak, MIT SeaGrant Dr. Julie Simpson, and Massachusetts Bays National Estuary Program & Merrimack Valley Planning Commission’s Coastal Coordinator Peter Phippen will give an overview of eelgrass and green crab efforts in the Great Marsh. The scientist will highlight why seagrass is vital to the survival of habitats in our coastal communities, what conservation efforts are being conducted in the field, and ideas on what we can all do to help.
Held Together, Stetson Gallery
The solo exhibition will run from Sep. 9- Oct. 16, 2018
Opening Reception: Sunday, September 9, 12-2pm, 2018
Stetson Gallery, 28 Mugford Street, Marblehead
The intricate natural balance within seagrass habitats is a place for me to slow down and focus. The idea that many elements are connected and can create beautiful exchanges such as seagrass absorbing carbon from the air and bubbling out oxygen is fascinating for me.
I love the fact that eelgrass beds provide a home, food, and sanctuary for so many creatures like crabs, starfish, manatees and a lot more. It brings together so many wonderful tangible and intangible elements
“Held Together” is an underwater hub where many exchanges are occurring simultaneously. The organic shapes have edges that become distinct and then shift into the next shape, creating energetic movements. This experience is similar to what occurs underwater when I snorkel in eelgrass meadows, there is this wonderful swaying movement created by lots of micro movements. I try to visually capture this rich diversity of colors, shapes and movement in my work.
“Sunlit” references the underwater world on a bright sunny day with crisp blue gray reflected light encircling the eelgrass beds in water. I use pencil and charcoal marks to mimic patterns in the water. I used hot pinks and muted violet colors to describe the beautiful space between the oceans and the beach in “Coastline”. The Charcoal lines mimic organic matter that washes ashore. I used large brushstrokes in alternating patterns to suggest movement of land and water and constant flux of these exchanges.
Despite the saddening loss of seagrass (20 football fields every hour globally) I attempt to portray the beauty found in seagrass habitats. They are both visually stunning and also hold a treasure trove of benefits from the clean air we breath to the muscles we eat. Being involved with eelgrass conservation efforts has made a huge impact in the way I think about my everyday choices. For me its a constant place of wonder and excitement.
Dr. Julie Simpson ecologist from MIT will be sharing her research in Eelgrass conservation and providing us with many wonderful scientific insights into how these habitats help us. I have had the pleasure of attending one of her carbon research field trips in Nahant and was amazed at the amount of information this unassuming plant can hold. More on Julie Simpson can be found here at MITSEAGRANT.
Does It Match the Couch- A Juried Exploration of Color
The group exhibition will run from June 1- Sep. 2, 2018
765 Newman Springs Road
Lincroft, NJ 07738
Opening Reception: Friday, June 1, 2018 from 6 – 8pm
Beyond the Tangible, Gallery 1832
Two Person Show with Nedret Andre & Ingrid Scheibler
October 10- December 10, 2017
“Abstraction allows man to see with his mind what he cannot see physically with his eyes…Abstract art enables the artist to perceive beyond the tangible, to extract the infinite out of the finite. It is the emancipation of the mind. It is an exploration into unknown areas.”
700 Main Street, North
Cambridge, MA 02139
Ocean Reflecting Sky, Stetson Gallery
September 7 – October 11th, 2017
Sunday September 10, 12-2pm, 2017
Stetson Gallery, 28 Mugford Street, Marblehead
Ocean Reflecting Sky will feature paintings and drawings depicting how important seagrass habitats are not only for ocean life, but for the air we breathe as well. Boston EPA’s marine ecologist and seagrass expert Dr. Philip Colarusso will talk about current scientific research in seagrass conservation at the opening reception on Sep. 10th. Dr. Colarusso will give an overview of the Blue Carbon research conducted in the seagrass beds of Boston Harbor.
“Reflection” is an abstraction of an algae bloom, nitrates have seeped into the water and started merging into seagrass’ space. There is still enough light for photosynthesis but the clarity of water is shifting. Nature has an amazing way of dealing with pollution we dump into it, to an extent. Clean water is important not only for seagrass ecosystems that need light to survive but also us. When we pollute our rivers, estuaries and oceans we get algae blooms that block light. This results in loss of costal environments that feed and sustain many species of life, including us.
Dr. Philip Colarusso is marine ecologist and seagrass expert working for the EPA for over 28 years. His current research focuses on carbon sequestration by seagrasses, seagrass restoration and the impact of invasive species on seagrasses. He received his MS in Environmental Science from University of Massachusetts in Boston and his PhD from Northeastern University in Marine Biology. More can be found on his work here.
Blue C @ 485 Madison Ave( South), NY
August 16 – September 4, 2017
485 Madison Ave (South)
New York, NY
(Between 52nd and 51st)
Space provided by Jack Resnick & Sons
Nearest Trains: 6, E, M
Opening Reception: Saturday, August 19, 7-9pm
Featuring a short talk by Dr. Nigella Hillgarth, evolutionary biologist and former CEO of the New England Aquarium.
My abstract landscapes are inspired by the sensations of life within seagrass beds; the color, the energy, and interconnectedness of species. Through my research and collaborations with marine ecologists, I learned about Blue Carbon, the carbon that is captured and stored by marine ecosystems such as mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses. This storage function buffers climate change and ocean acidification. Blue C will feature new abstract paintings depicting how important seagrass habitats are not only for ocean life, but for the air we breathe as well.
My interviews with marine ecologists Phil Colarusso, Barnabas Daru, Jane Disney, Nigella Hillgarth, Randall Hughes, Alyssa Novack, and Fred Short have greatly influenced my paintings. Interviews on these amazing scientists can be found here:
Super excited to be invited to show my work through Chashama’s Space to Present Program!
Also a special thank you to Resnick & Sons, who have generously provided the space to Chashama and me to share my seagrass inspired work!
Something’s In the Water at Enso Art Gallery
March 29 – April 29, 2017
Poetry Slam with Bradly Souffrant & Ecologist Barnabas Daru:
Saturday, April 1, 3:00- 5:00 PM, 2017
Friday, April 7th, 6:00- 9:00PM, 2017
Marine Ecologist Alyssa Novak presentation
Gus Agudelo solo guitar
The Gallery at Enso Flats
50 Centre Street
Brockton, MA, 02301
November 14th- December 31st, 2016
Thursday, November 17th, 5:30-8:30 pm, 2016
160 Federal Street, Boston, MA 02110
Boston, November 17th, 2016 @artlery160, the premier high tech gallery in downtown Boston, is pleased to present “Immersed,” a major exhibition of new paintings and an interactive public arts sculpture by Nedret Andre. Immersed is a collaborative examination of our seagrass environment explores how nutrient overload impacts our waters. The reception will include marine ecologists presenting their seagrass field-work, poetry reading, and a live public arts project.
During the reception between 6:30-7:30PM, Barbanas Daru from Harvard University, Anamarija Frankic from Biomimicry Lab., and Alyssa Novak from Boston University will be discussing their scientific work around Eelgrass conservation. Published poet Wendy Drexler will be sharing her earth inspired poetry. The public will also be invited to build an “Invented Habitat” with sprawling watercolors and a soft sculpture that organically mimics seagrass beds.
@artlery160 is a high tech Boston-based contemporary gallery that enhances art appreciation and engagement through the use of Artlery Art Appreciation System, downloadable at https://artlery.com.
2016 Red Biennial at Cambridge Arts Association
November 8 – December 21, 2016
Intertidal, Stetson Gallery
September 3- September 30th, 2016
Sunday September 11, 12-2pm, 2016
Stetson Gallery, 28 Mugford Street, Marblehead
Pop Up Show @Rocky Neck Art Colony
August 21, 22nd
Goetemann Residency Studio, 51A Rocky Neck Ave. Gloucester
USEA Celebrates 30 Years @artlery 160
June 8th- July 9th, 2016
Tuesday, June 28th, 6-9 pm, 2016
160 Federal Street, Boston, MA 0211o
ECO Arts Festival
5th Annual Provincetown Green Arts Festival
May 6- May 15th, 2016
Walsingham Gallery, Newburyport
“We are now at the forefront of a wave of neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and medical research that illuminates the physiological and brain process that underlie our transformative connection to water.”
W. J. Nichols, Blue Mind
Please join me and fellow artists in our different interpretations water.
Blue Minded, Walsingham Gallery
April 8- May 8th, 2016
Friday, April 8th, 6-9pm
47 Merrimac Street
Newburyport, MA 01950
What Have We Got to Lose? Mass Audubon Moose Hill Gallery
March 4th- June 20th, 2016
April 6th, 6-8pm, 2016
Moose Hill Wildlife Sanctuary
293 Moose Hill Street
Sharon, MA 02067
781.784.5691 Ext 8111